Effective way of writing a report or term paper
As a student at university level, we all have to prepare many term paper related to our subjects or to make internship report for completing our graduation course. But in many cases we do not know how to write a term paper or internship report effectively that will bring us a good rating by our course teachers. Some course teachers do instruct us about “how to write an effective term paper and internship report” but many do not. So we the students find ourselves in a great problem to prepare them. Today I will discuss some of the steps & tips for making a term paper or internship report. Now lets get started
What you will need:
- A topic for the work (obviously)
- Good English capability
Step by step process of making:
- Title page:
The first and foremost part of a term paper/internship report is to make a standard title page. Keep in mind that, you are not allowed to do a mistake in this section if you do that will affect your overall work. Many students tends to make a vastly graphical design in a title page. I can say to you that “its quite unnecessary” . As a formal work for your course you can just maintain a standard form for making a title page rather not to over do it. Here’s an example :
Things that will be on the page: (all are serially listed)
- A logo of the institute
- Name of the institute
- Department/school of the institute (if any)
- Course Code/Name
- The paper type (Term paper/Internship report)
- Prepared by (The name & id of the student)
- Supervisor (The name of the teacher)
- Date of submission (important)
For clearing one thing, this is not a strict instruction to follow. You may include things of your liking’s or as the teacher want but this sample is standard enough to apply anywhere without any error.
- Letter of transmittal:
At 2nd page you have to include a letter of transmittal. Now you can ask a question “whats about it?”. It’s a formal way of seeking permission to submit a term paper/internship report to the teacher about a certain topic. It looks like an application to the teacher. It is very easy to prepare an application as you are preparing application from class 3. This site has some collection of certain standard letter of transmittal on its download section.please do a search for it. Here’s an example:
- Table of contents
Its just a index of pages for your report. Its will help the reader to find what topics or sections are discussed in your report and the page number of the corresponding topic. Table of contents could be simple as we see on our books index page. Though it comes on our serial in 3rd it have to be done at last. After the report completed then you have to give page number and then add them with the topics.
- Executive summary:
This part doesn’t mean that you have to summarize your full report here. You just need to give some of your own word regarding the making and about the topic with a mixture of summary. There’s no need to make it more than 1 page. You can start with defining your topic subject.
- The main body part of the report:
We are going to make the body part chapter wise. In this section you have to include everything under some chapter heading. Now lets see the chapters:
- Statement of the research problem
As a part of introduction firstly you have to give a statement for the research problem or about the topic on which you are writing. It comprises that what you are doing. Some definition or extensions of the topic.
- Rational for its study
In this part state the overall theme (topic) of the study and explain the below questions
- Why this subject is important as a topic in general and also in the context of the country or a region or an area of public interest?
- Why the student has decided to pick it up as a subject for the study or research (**this question will rise when a student are given free choice of deciding their subject. But we also answer this when the supervisor give us the subject)
- What is the significance of the study
- Objectives and scope of the study
You have to show some objectives and scope that the study could achieve in this section. It will be self evaluated that “why I am doing this and what will it bring?” then we can find the objectives and the scopes. Of course the objective and scope will be based on the context of the country or region. There should be at least 5 points for both objectives and scope.
- Methodology of the study
This part will describe how the information gathering process is formulated.all parameters/dimensions and variables relating issues under investigation. The criteria and methods for measurement have to be described. The sources of data. There are two major sources of data like 1. Primary source of data 2. Secondary source of data
1.The primary source of data involves the on field data collection and the process of it by the student. This includes surveys,meeting,interview etc
2.Secondary sources of data includes the information sectors which gives us information about a certain topic like newspaper,government office,magazine,institution,annual report etc.
- Limitations of the study
This part is quite easy one. You have to just find out the problems that you have met while collecting information or creating the report . this also includes the geological limitation or sample problem for the study. You can tell anything that you thing can be achieved by the study but could not achieved by you. Just to make sure that do not over describe it otherwise it will be counted as your negative side.
All the above forms our introduction part.
Chapter-2: literature review
In this chapter of main body you have to provide a literature review about the topic. You have to present a selective and critical review of the relevant literature to show the below things
- The understanding of the student about the main issues and describe it in that context
- What is now available in the existing stock of knowledge on the chosen subject of study.
- Which different aspects of the subject had already been studied and how and what are the current findings or observations
- Show what knowledge gap the study is going to fill in
Chapter-3: Discussion: An overview of the study
This part mainly act as a knowledge base. You have to define everything here. There will be parts , sections in order to construct the information that you are providing.
Think “planning” as a topic of report. Now you have to define planning, types of planning, processes of planning and many more about the term “planning”
We can provide each title a separate number based on our chapter for better indexing. Like 3.1, 3.2, 3.3 and so on.
In this section you have to analyze the collected data & information from different sources and process that we have stated in the methodology part. This part largely contain statistical data, graphs, statements, comparison and observation. The most common way of analysis is to compare the collected data with a standard set of data. This will help to make the next part.
This part is bit tricky because you have to find the positive and negative side that have come out because of our study. If it is a report on a company, we have to state the positive actions of that company and also the negative actions. Often findings part emphasize on the negative part because it is the main motto of our research . the analysis part helps us to form the findings part.
The best way to write a recommendation is to give the solution of your previous findings and analysis. This will make it more relevant to your topic.. This part may contain “should” type sentences but remember do not make yourself 100% right about your recommendation and try to use “this may help” type sentences to simplify the structure.
This part will contain the info about your secondary sources that is included on the paper. It gives the reader a complete view from where the paper information is collected. It can be internet links, journal name, books, magazine etc.
If you want to include any hard paper with the report , this part will contain the name & serial number of them. The extra paper will be attached with the term paper.
After completing just print out your report and nicely bind it and of course remember to submit it on time.